A study of past earthquakes suggests that Los Angeles may be at a lower risk than normal of big quakes during the next 5 to 10 years.
Jones, L.M., and E. Hauksson. 1997. The seismic cycle in southern California: Precursor or response? Geophysical Research Letters (Feb. 15).
Estrogen, long considered as the quintessential female sex hormone, plays a critical role in normal male sexual behavior.
Ogawa, S., . . .D.W. Pfaff. 1997. Behavioral effects of estrogen receptor gene disruption in male mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94(Feb. 18):1476.
Ogawa, S., . . .D.W. Pfaff. 1996. Reversal of sex roles in genetic female mice by disruption of estrogen receptor gene. Neuroendocrinology 64(December):467.
Bjerke, D.L., and R.E. Peterson. 1994. Reproductive toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in male rats: Different effects of in utero versus lactational exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 127(August):241.
Gray, L.E. . . .L.S. Birnbaum. 1995. Exposure to TCDD during development permanently alters reproductive function in male Long Evans rats and hamsters: Reduced ejaculated and epididymal sperm numbers and sex accessory gland weights in offspring with normal androgenic status. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 131(March):108.
Raloff, J. 1996. 'Estrogen' pairings can increase potency. Science News 149(June 8):356.
______. 1996. Estrogenic agents leak from dental sealant. Science News 149(April 6):214.
______. 1995. PCBs' legacy can affect next generation. Science News 148(Nov. 11):310.
______. 1995. How paper mill wastes may imperil fish. Science News 148(Nov. 4):295.
______. 1995. Beyond estrogens. Science News 148(July 15):44.
______. 1995. Newest estrogen mimics the commonest? Science News 148(July 15):47.
______. 1995. Additional source of dietary 'estrogens'. Science News 147(June 3):341.
______. 1994. Gender-bending PCBs. Science News 146(Oct. 8):239.
______. 1994. That feminine touch. Science News 145(Jan. 22):56.
______. 1994. The gender benders. Science News 145(Jan. 8):24.
______. 1992. Perinatal dioxin feminizes male rats. Science News 141(May 30):359.
Investigators are using fluorescent tags to illuminate the organization of chromosomes inside a cell's nucleus.
Sedat, J.W. 1997. Specific 3-D chromosome interactions in the Drosophila interphase nucleus. The 163rd meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Seattle.
Marshall, W.F., et al. 1996. Specific interactions of chromatin with the nuclear envelope: Positional determination within the nucleus in Drosophila melanogaster. Molecular Biology of the Cell 7:825.
For color pictures and movies relevant to this work, try the Sedat lab page at http://util.ucsf.edu/sedat/.
Antibodies can ferry radioactive atoms directly to cancerous cells, killing those cells with little damage to healthy tissue.
Eary, J.F. 1997. Advances in using radioisotopes for cancer diagnosis and therapy. The 163rd meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Seattle.
Scheinberg, D.A. 1997. Alpha particles therapy for cancer. The 163rd meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Seattle.
Amino acids formed in space 4.5 billion years ago and recovered from a meteorite have a small, but significant, excess of the left-handed over the right-handed molecular form, suggesting that a nonbiological process can produce asymmetry.
Bada, J.L. 1997. Extraterrestrial handedness? Science 275(Feb. 14):942.
Cronin, J.R., and S. Pizzarello. 1997. Enantiomeric excesses in meteoritic amino acids. Science 275(Feb. 14):951.
Cowen, R. 1997. More findings about life on the Red Planet. Science News 151(Feb. 8):87.
The death rate for heart disease dropped 34 percent between 1980 and 1990, and half of that drop resulted from improved surgical and drug treatment and the rest from lifestyle changes.
Hunink, M.G.M. . . .M.C. Weinstein. 1996. The recent decline in mortality from coronary heart disease, 1980-1990. Journal of the American Medical Association 277(Feb. 19):535.
With the launch last week of a radio telescope electronically linked to 40 telescopes on the ground, astronomers sharpen their view of the universe.
Cowen, R. 1995. New evidence of galactic black hole. Science News 147(Jan. 21):36.
Flames in space behave in unexpected ways, including burning into a breeze and smoldering in strange patterns.
1997. USML-2/USMP-3 Launch-Plus-One-Year Science Conference. Washington, D.C.
An allergy to proteins in seminal fluid is more common than previously suspected.
Bernstein, J., et al. Prevalence of human seminal plasma hypersensitivity among symptomatic women. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology 78(January):54.
An advisory panel declines to recommend regular mammograms for women in their forties.
1997. Breast cancer screening for women ages 40-49. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Statement 49.
Only a small percentage of North Sea cod survive to reproduce.
Cook, R.M., A. Sinclair, and G. Stefansson. 1997. Is the North Sea cod stock collapsing? Nature 385(Feb. 6):521.
Raloff, J. 1996. Fishing for answers. Science News 150(Oct. 26):268.
______. 1996. Fishing: Out of control? Science News 149(June 8):367.
______. 1995. Fishing: What we don't keep. Science News 148(Dec. 16):415.
______. 1995. Reproductive changes from overfishing. Science News 148(Dec. 16):415.
______. 1995. U.N. treaty to aid 'international' fish. Science News 148(Dec. 9):389.
Weber, P. 1994. Net loss: Fish, job, and the marine economy. Worldwatch Paper No. 120. Washington D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.
Williams, Meryl. 1995. The Transition in the Contribution of Living Aquatic Resources to Food Security. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Paths can be a significant source of soil loss in tropical rainforests.
Wallin, T.R., and C.P. Harden. 1996. Estimating trail-related soil erosion in the humid tropics: Jatun Sacha, Ecuador, and La Selva, Costa Rica. Ambio 25(December):517.
Raloff, J. 1992. New U.N. soil survey pinpoints erosion problem areas. Science News 141(April 4):215.
Birthday of an explosion
Ten years after witnessing the brightest supernova explosion in nearly 400 years, astronomers are still grappling with puzzles about the supernova 1987A.
Chevalier, R. 1997. Meeting of the American Astronomical Society. Toronto.
Pun, J., et al. 1997. Meeting of the American Astronomical Society. Toronto.Further Readings:
Cowen, R. 1994. New activity near supernova 1987A. Science News 145(Feb. 26):142.
Scientists take a harder look at stone crab shells
The light and dark parts of a stone crab's huge claws reflect differences in the microstructure and strength of the constituent materials.
Melnick, C.A., Z. Chen, and J.J. Mecholsky Jr. 1996. Hardness and toughness of exoskeleton material in the stone crab, Menippe mercenaria. Journal of Materials Research 11(November):2903.Further Readings:
Bert, T.M., et al. 1996. Character discriminatory power, character-set congruence, and the classification of individuals from hybrid zones: An example using stone crabs (Menippe). Evolution 50:655.
Pennisi, E. 1993. Chitin craze. Science News 144(July 31):72.Sources:
Theresa M. Bert
Florida Marine Research Institute
100 8th Avenue, S.E.
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
Darryl L. Felder
Department of Biology
University of Southern Louisiana
300 E. St. Mary Boulevard
Lafayette, LA 70503
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
256A Rhines Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Cynthia Melnick Sloop
300 Sharwood Drive
Naples, FL 34110
Centre for Biomimetics
University of Cambridge
#1 Early Gate
Redding, RG6 6AT
Female hormones may play a pivotal role in a distinctly male epidemic
Growing evidence suggests that prostate cancer may be linked to damage to DNA, triggered, at least in part, by estrogen.
Brooks, J.D., W.-H. Lee, and W.G. Nelson. 1996. Epidemiological and molecular features of prostatic carcinogenesis as clues for new prostate cancer prevention strategies. Supplement to the Canadian Journal of Urology 3(June):20.
Ghatak, S., and S. Ho. 1996. Age-related changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation status in ventral and dorsolateral prostate lobes of Noble rats. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 222:362.
Ho, S., K.-F. Lee, and K. Lane. In press. Neoplastic transformation of the prostate. In Prostate: Basic and Clinical Aspects, R. Naz, ed. New York: CRC Press.
Liehr, J.G. In press. Dual role of estrogens as hormones and procarcinogens: Tumor initiation by metabolic activation of estrogens. European Journal of Cancer Prevention.
______. 1997. Androgen-induced redox changes in prostate cancer cells. Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Malins, D.C., N.L. Polissar, and S.J. Gunselman. 1997. Models of DNA structure achieve almost perfect discrimination between normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and adenocarcinoma and have a high potential for predicting BPH and prostate cancer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94(Jan. 7):259.Further Readings:
Adler, T. 1995. Power foods. Science News 147(April 22):248.
Collins, M.N., and M.J. Barry. 1996. Controversies in prostate cancer screening. Journal of the American Medical Association 276(Dec. 25):1976.
Duthie, S.J., et al. 1996. Antioxidant supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Cancer Research 56(March 15):1291.
Giovannucci, E., et al. 1995. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87(Dec. 6):1767.
Hertog, M.G., P.C. Hollman, and B. van de Putte. 1993. Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of tea infusions, wines, and fruit juices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41:1242.
Ho, S., and R. Roy. 1994. Sex hormone-induced nuclear DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in the dorsolateral prostates of Noble rats. Cancer Letters 84:155.
Levine, A.C., A. Kirschenbaum, and J.L. Gabrilove. 1997. The role of sex steroids in the pathogenesis and maintenance of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 64(Jan. 1):20.
Liehr, J.G., and M.J. Ricci. 1996. 4-hydroxylation of estrogens as a marker of human mammary tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93(April 30):3294.
Malins, D.C., N.L. Polissar, and S.J. Gunselman. 1996. Progression of human breast cancers to the metastatic state is linked to hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93(March 19):2557.
______. 1996. Tumor progression to the metastatic state involves structural modifications in DNA markedly different from those associated with primary tumor formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93(Nov. 26):14047.
Malins, D.C., et al. 1995. The etiology and prediction of breast cancer. Cancer 75(Jan. 15):503.
Morrow, J.D., B. Frei, . . . L.J. Roberts II. 1995. Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes) in smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 332(May 4):1198.
Raloff, J. 1996. How antioxidants may fight cancer. Science News 149(March 23):182.
______. 1994. Oxygen's radical role in cancer and aging. Science News 146(Dec. 17):407.
Ripple, M.O., et al. 1997. Prooxidant-antioxidant shift induced by androgen treatment of human prostate carcinoma cells. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89(Jan. 1):40.
Roy, D., and J.G. Liehr. 1990. Inhibition of estrogen-induced kidney carcinogenesis in Syrian hamsters by modulators of estrogen metabolism. Carcinogenesis 11:567.