Following a successful landing on July 4, the Mars Pathfinder and its rover began exploring their surroundings.
Cowen, R. 1997. Return to the Red Planet. Science News 151(June 28):402.
A protein found in the seminal fluid of male fruit flies is crucial to the female fly's ability to store sperm for later use.
Neubaum, D.M., and M. Wolfner. A male seminal fluid product, Acp36DE, is required for efficient sperm storage in mated female Drosophila melanogaster. International Congress of Developmental Biology. Snowbird, Utah.
Near its melting point, the crystal structure of the molecule cubane looks unlike other solids of its type.
Yildirim, T., et al. 1997. Unusual structure, phase transition, and dynamics of solid cubane. Physical Review Letters 78(June 30):4938.
Borman, S. 1994. Military research on cubane explosives may also lead to new pharmaceuticals. Chemical and Engineering News 72(Nov. 28):34.
Chronic high blood pressure shrinks brain tissue, hurting memory and language capabilities in senior citizens.
Strassburger, T., et al. 1997. Interactive effects of age and hypertension on volumes of brain structures. Stroke 28(July):1410.
Swan, G., et al. 1997. Change in neuropsychological performance over 10 years and brain morphology in an elderly sample: The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute twin study. 49th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology. Boston.
Coffey, C., et al. 1992. Quantitative cerebral anatomy of the aging human brain: A cross sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology 42:527.
Fackelman, K. 1992. Chronic hypertension may shrink the brain. Science News 142(Sept. 12):166.
Murphy, D., et al. 1992. Age related differences in volumes of subcortical nuclei, brain matter and cerebrospinal fluid in healthy men as measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of Neurology 49:839.
Salerno, J., et al. 1992. Brain atrophy in hypertension: A volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study. Hypertension 20:340.
People who learn two languages as children appear to rely on a common part of the brain for both, whereas a separate patch of brain facilitates the use of a second language learned in adulthood.
Kim, K. . . .J. Hirsch. 1997. Distinct cortical areas associated with native and second languages. Nature 388(July 10):171.
A lyme disease-causing bacterium steals an enzyme from its mammalian host and uses it to travel within an insect.
Coleman, J.L., et al. 1997. Plasminogen is required for efficient dissemination of B. burgdorferi in ticks and for enhancement of spirochetemia in mice. Cell 89(June 27):1111.
Late last month, the NEAR spacecraft took some 500 snapshots of an asteroid called 431 Mathilde.
Images and a description of the new findings are available at the website http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/NEAR/Mathilde.
Earth is locked in a gravitational dance with an asteroid that circles the sun.
Wiegert, P.A., K.A. Innanen, and S. Mikkola. 1997. An asteroidal companion to the Earth. Nature 387(June 12):685.
Murray, C.D. 1997. The Earth's secret companion. Nature 387(June 12):651.
At least one virus has developed a way to circumvent an intestinal coating similar to human mucin that insects use to protect themselves from infection.
Wang, P., and R.R. Granados. 1997. An intestinal mucin is the target substrate for a baculovirus enhancin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94(June 24):6977.
Dissolution of the relationship between the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) and Human Genome Sciences, Inc., has allowed TIGR to release DNA sequence data for several microbes.
Additional information is available at http://www.tigr.org.
Because patent and copyright charges do not recover the cost of processing applications, Congress recommends raising fees.
Li, A., et al. 1997. Intellectual property: Fees are not always commensurate with the costs of services. U S. General Accounting Office Report RCED-97-113 (May 9).
Asian elementary-school children outperform the rest of the world in science and math.
Third International Mathematics and Science Study. 1997. Pursuing excellence: A study of U.S. fourth-grade mathematics and science achievement in international context.
Raloff, J. 1996. Precollege science and math 'lack focus'. Science News 150(Oct. 19):244.
______. 1996. Minds-on science. Science News 149(Feb. 3):72.
Vergano, D. 1996. Science and math education: No easy answer. Science News 150(Nov. 30):341.
Segregation of once-captive orangutans may prove healthier than reintegration into wild populations.
Yeager, C.P. 1997. Orangutan rehavilitation in Tanjung Puting National Park, Indonesia. Conservation Biology 11(June):802.
Raloff, J. 1995. Caste-off orangs. Science News 147(March 25):184.
The federal government has set up a website to accept reports from anyone who spots amphibians exhibiting malformations.
Do some people inherit a distaste for broccoli?
Supertasters shun certain foods containing bitter-tasting compounds, some of which may ward off cancer.
Breslin, P., et al. 1997. Salt enhances flavour by suppressing bitterness. Nature 387(June 5):563.
Drewnowski, A., et al. In press. Taste responses to naringin, a flavonoid, and the acceptance of grapefruit juice are related to genetic sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Howard, B., et al. 1997. Phytochemicals and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 95(June 3):2591.
Fackelmann, K. 1990. Blocking breast cancer. Science News 137(May 12):296.
A volatile world may have forged minds that make a virtue of uncertainty
Repeated environmental changes over the past 5 million years may have sparked the evolution of human brains tailored to dealing with uncertain conditions.
Potts, R. 1997. Sixty-sixth annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. St. Louis.
______. 1996. Humanity's Descent. New York: William Morrow.
______. 1996. Evolution and climate variability. Science 273(Aug. 16):922.
DeMenocal, P. 1995. Plio-pleistocene African climate. Science 270(Oct. 6):53.
Leigh, S. 1996. Evolution of human growth spurts. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 101(February):455.
Marino, L. 1996. What can dolphins tell us about primate evolution? Evolutionary Anthropology 5:81.
Vrba, E., et al., eds. 1995. Paleoevolution and climate, with emphasis on human origins. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.