Martian Rocks Offer a Windy Tale
New images taken by the six-wheeled rover on Mars provide the first clear evidence that windblown sand has gouged rocks on the Red Planet.
Information about the Mars Pathfinder mission and the latest data and photographs are available at http://mpfwww.jpl.nasa.gov/, or see http://mars.sgi.com/default.html for alternative locations.
______. 1997. Rover spectrometer connects with Yogi. Science News 152(July 19):39.
Cowen, R. 1997. Postcards from the Red Planet. Science News 152(July 12):20.
Two proteins may help transplants
Research in monkeys indicates that two genetically engineered antibodies may protect transplants from rejection.
Kirk, Allan D. . . . S.J. Knechtle. 1997. CTLA4-Ig and anti-CD40 ligand renal allograft rejection in primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94(Aug. 4):8789.
Caine, R., and H. Davies. 1994. Organ graft tolerance: The liver effect. Lancet 343(Jan. 8):67.
Ezzell, C. 1992. Antibody combo nixes graft rejection. Science News 141(Feb. 29):132.
June, C.H., et al., 1994. Immunology Today 15: 321.
Pechhold, K., et al. 1997. Journal of Immunology 158:4921.
Schmidt, K.F. 1993. Synthetic path to new transplant drugs. Science News 143(June 5):358.
Travis, J. 1991. Camouflaged grafts elude immune detection. Science News 139(June 22):391.
PCBs linked to rise in lymph cancers
Exposure to PCBs--and perhaps a virus--may explain the skyrocketing growth of a potentially lethal cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Hardell, L., et al. 1996. Higher concentrations of specific polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in adipose tissue from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients compared with controls without a malignant disease. International Journal of Oncology 9(Oct.)603.
Rothman, N., et al. 1997. A nested case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and serum organochlorine residues. Lancet 350(July 26): 240.
Devesa, S.S., and T. Fears. 1992. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma time trends: United States and international data. Cancer Research 52(Oct. 1):5432s.
Dewailly, E., et al. 1996. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec. American Journal of Public Health 86(Sept.):1241.
Hartge, P., and S.S. Devesa. 1992. Quantification of the impact of known risk factors on time trends in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence. Cancer Research 52(Oct. 1):5566s.
Raloff, J. 1997. Jury is still out on PCBs' aging effects. Science News Online (June 21).
______. 1997. A New World of Pollutant Effects. Science News 151(March 1):S19.
______. 1996. Because we eat PCBs . . . Science News Online (Sept. 14).
______. 1996. Banned pollutant's legacy: Lower IQs. Science News 150(Sept. 14):165.
______. 1995. PCBs' legacy can affect next generation. Science News 148(Nov. 11):310.
______. 1994. The problem with tallying 'dioxin.' Science News 146(Sept. 24):206.
Staying alive: Cell protein guards cancers
To stop themselves from committing suicide despite mutations, cancer cells make a protein not normally produced by adult tissues.
Ambrosini, G. et al. 1997. A novel anti-apoptosis gene, survivin, expressed in cancer and lymphoma. Nature Medicine 3(Aug.):917.
Deveraux, Q. . . . J.C. Reed. 1997. X-linked IAP is a direct inhibitor of cell-death proteases. Nature 388(July 17):300.
Travis, J. 1996. Do suicidal cells prevent colon cancer? Science News 150(July 27):55.
Women's brains present hormonal mystery
Women who experience temporary declines of an ovarian hormone successfully solve complex problems although they no longer exhibit the brain response previously linked to success on such tasks, a research team reports.
Berman, K.F., et al. 1997. Modulation of cognition-specific cortical activity by gonadal steroids: A positron-emission tomography study in women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94(Aug. 5):8836.
Newfound worm's world under the sea
Deep sea deposits of hydrates, crystallized structures of water and hydrocarbon gases, are home to a previously unknown, pink, many-legged marine worm.
Information about the worms and their discovery is available at http://www.bio.psu.edu/fisher/main.html.
Monastersky, R. 1996. The Mother Lode of Natural Gas. Science News 150(Nov. 9):298.
Travis, J. 1996. Live long and prosper. Science News 150(Sept. 28):201.
Finds undermine dating of early land life
A discovery in Greenland may rewrite the history of vertebrates' earliest ventures from the water onto land.
Hartz, E.H. 1997. Carboniferous age for the East Greenland "Devonian" basin: Paleomagnetic and isotopic constraints on age, stratigraphy, and plate reconstructions. Geology 25(Aug.):675.
Monastersky, R. 1994. Walking away from a fish-eat-fish world. Science News 146(July 30):70.
Communism in trees goes underground
Trees transfer carbon to their neighbors, according to their needs, via an underground fungal network.
Read, D. 1997. The ties that bind. Nature 388(Aug. 7): 517.
Simard, S.W., et al. 1977. Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field. Nature 388(Aug. 7):579.
BiomedicineDetecting heart defects prenatally
An ultrasound exam after week 18 of pregnancy greatly improves doctors' ability to detect heart defects in the fetus.
Rice, M. 1997. American Heart Association Health and Science Journalists Forum. Portland, Ore.
Rice, M., et al. 1996. Pediatric echocardiography: Current role and a review of technical advances. The Journal of Pediatrics 128:1.
Schwartz, S., et al. 1994. Simulation of intraoperative visualization of cardiac structures and study of dynamic surgical anatomy with real time three dimensional echocardiography. American Journal of Cardiology 73:501.
Sugimura, T, et al. 1994. Intravascular ultrasound or coronary arteries in children: Assessment of the wall morphology and lumen after Kawasakin disease. Circulation 81:2007.
Blood carries HIV from mouth to mouth
The AIDS virus in blood from a man's diseased gums may have infected his female partner when they kissed.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Transmission of HIV possibly associated with exposure of mucous membrane to contaminated blood. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46(July 11): 620.
BiologyBiological control for deer ticks
A symbiotic combination of roundworms and microbes may provide effective biological control for the deer ticks that spread Lyme disease.
Information about the possible application is available at http://www.ars.usda.gov/is
Mlot, C. 1997. A Soil Story. Science News 152(July 26):58.
Diversity in tropical forest edges . . .
The expansive edge habitat that borders tropical rain forest may be an incubator of biological diversity.
Smith, T.B., et al. 1997. A role for ecotones in generating rainforest biodiversity. Science 276(June 20):1855.
. . . and tropical forest soils
DNA analysis of the soil of Amazonian forests reveals a mother lode of diverse and novel bacteria.
Borneman, J. and E.W. Triplett. 1997. Molecular microbial diversity in soils from Eastern Amazonia: Evidence for unusual microorganisms and microbial population shifts associated with deforestation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63(July):1.
ChemistryCloaked blood hides from immune system
Masking the surface of red blood cells may keep people with chronic blood disorders from becoming oversensitive to frequent transfusions.
Scott, M.D., et al. 1997. Chemical camouflage of antigenic determinants: Stealth erythrocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94(July 8):7566.
Wu, C. 1997. Banking on Blood Conversion. Science News 151(Jan. 11):24.
Another way to search for new drugs
A technique combining test-tube chemical synthesis with the machinery of an enzyme provides an efficient means to create novel molecules that may be useful as antibiotics.
Jacobsen, J.R., et al. 1997. Precursor-directed biosynthesis of erythromycin analogs by an engineered polyketide synthase. Science 277(July 18):367.
Seachrist, L. 1996. Infections making a deadly comeback. Science News 149(Jan. 20):38.
MathematicsAn enormous chunk of pi
The number pi has been computed to a record 51 billion decimal digits.
The announcement of the achievement is available at http://www.cecm.sfu.ca/personal/jborwein/Kanada_50b.html.
Berggren, L., J. Borwein, and P. Borwein. Pi: A Source Book. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Peterson, I. 1997. A passion for pi. Science News Online (Aug. 2).
______. 1995. A new formula for picking off pieces of pi. Science News 148(Oct. 28):279.
Lava lamp randomness
The meandering blobs of a Lava lamp serve as the starting point for a computer to generate a string of random numbers.
Information about the lavarand random-number generator is available at http://lavarand.sgi.com/.
Peterson, I. In press. The Jungles of Randomness: A Mathematical Safari. New York: Wiley.
______. 1991. Numbers at random. Science News 140(Nov. 9):300.
Pickover, C.A. 1992. Lava lamps in the 21st century. In Mazes for the Mind: Computers and the Unexpected. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Information about Lava Lites is available at http://www.lavaworld.com/.
Galileo Explores the Galilean Moons
Tidal tugs sculpt Jovian satellites
Data gathered by the Galileo spacecraft is providing new evidence that the gravitational tug-of-war between Jupiter and its four large moons has had a profound influence on the evolution of these satellites.
Anderson, J.D., et al. Europa's differentiated internal structure: Inferences from two Galileo encounters. Science 276(May 23):1236.
Greenberg, R. 1997. Annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences. Cambridge, Mass.
Kivelson, M.G., et al. Europa's magnetic signature: Report from Galileo's pass on 19 December 1996. Science 276(May 23):1239.
Pappalardo, R.T. 1997. Annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences. Cambridge, Mass.
Pappalardo, R.T. 1997. Spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union. Baltimore.
Showman, A.P., D.J. Stevenson, and R. Malhotra. In press. Coupled orbital and thermal evolution of Ganymede. Icarus.
Showman, A.P., and R. Malhotra. 1997. Tidal evolution into the Laplace resonance and the resurfacing of Ganymede. Icarus 127(June):93.
The latest information on the Galileo mission is available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo.
The Ties That Bond
Adult romantic and sexual styles may grow out of parent-child affiliations
The ways in which grown-ups play the mating game reflect psychological approaches to attachment that take root during infant-caregiver relationships.
Belsky, J. In press. Patterns of attachment in modern evolutionary perspective. In Handbook of Attachment Theory and Research, Cassidy, J., and P. Shaver, eds. New York: Guilford.
Zeifman, D., and C. Hazan. 1997. Attachment: The bond in pair-bonds. In Evolutionary Social Psychology, J. Simpson and D. Kenrick, eds. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bowlby, J. 1980. Attachment and Loss: Volume 3. Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books.
______. 1973. Attachment and Loss: Volume 2. New York: Basic Books.
______. 1969. Attachment and Loss: Volume 1. New York: Basic Books.
Kirkpatrick, L. In press. Evolution, Pair-Bonding, and Reproductive Strategies. In Attachment Theory and Close Relationships, Simpson, J., and S. Rholes, eds. New York: Guilford.
Miller, L., and S. Fishkin. 1997. On the dynamics of human bonding and reproductive success. In Evolutionary Social Psychology, J. Simpson and D. Kenrick, eds. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.