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News of the Week:
Grown-Up Monkey Brains Get Growing
Researchers have for the first time documented the creation of new nerve cells in an adult primate brain.
Gould, E., et al. 1998. Proliferation of granule cell precursors in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys is diminished by stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95(March 16):3168.
Cage provides key to water droplet
A cluster of six water molecules exhibits properties of the bulk liquid, making it the smallest-possible drop of water.
Clary, D.C. 1998. The smallest drop of water. Meeting of the American Physical Society. Los Angeles. March.
1994. Cascades from a different faucet. Science News 146(July 30):77.
Lipinksi, R. 1995. Squeezing H2 and O2 yields new compound. Science News 148(Nov. 4):293.
Peterson, I. 1996. Freezing water droplets to novel icy peaks. Science News 149(June 1):340.
______. 1995. Dipping into liquid imaging. Science News 147(April 8):223.
______. 1993. Avalanche dynamics: Dripping waterdrops. Science News 144(Oct.. 23):261.
Smaglik, P. 1997. Dancing droplets. Science News 151(April 19):242.
Californias quake deficit fades
Seismologists dispute the notion that Southern California faces a future filled with more numerous or stronger quakes.
Field, E.H. 1998. An integrated seismic-hazard source model for Southern California: No deficit or M>8 earthquakes required. Meeting of the Seismological Society of America. Boulder. March.
Hanks, T.C., and R.S. Stein. 1998. Earthquake deficits, seismic moment deficits, and M>6 seismicity in Southern California since 1903. Meeting of the Seismological Society of America. Boulder. March.
Monastersky, R. 1995. Los Angeles faces a dangerous quake debt. Science News 147(Jan. 21):37.
Yeast cells point to human cancer gene
Specific mutations in human cancer cells may allow the distribution of an abnormal number of chromosomes.
Cahill, D.P., et al. 1998. Mutations of mitotic checkpoint genes in human cancers. Nature 392(March 19):300.
Weaver, T.L., and R.A. Weinberg. 1998. A checkpoint on the road to cancer. Nature 392(March 19):223.
Red glimmer reveals most distant galaxy
Astronomers have found a galaxy so far away that observers may be seeing it during its first burst of star formation.
Dey, A., et al. 1998. A galaxy at z=5.34. Astrophysical Journal Letters 498(May 10).
Cowen, R. 1998. Light from the early universe. Science News 153(Feb. 7):92.
All age groups lack vitamin D in blood
Vitamin D deficiency, common among the elderly, is also prevalent in younger people.
Thomas, M.K. . . . S. Finkelstein. 1998. Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. New England Journal of Medicine 338(March 19):777.
Utiger, R.D. 1998. The need for more Vitamin D. New England Journal of Medicine 338(March 19):828.
Dawson-Hughes, B., et al. 1997. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age and older. New England Journal of Medicine 337:670.
Fraser, D.R. 1995. Vitamin D. Lancet 345(Jan. 14):104.
Holick, M.V., et al. 1992. The vitamin D content of fortified milk and infant formula. New England Journal of Medicine 326:1178.
Parfitt, A.M. 1998. Osteomalacia and related disorders. Metabolic Bone Disease. San Diego.
Raisz, L.G. 1997. Them bones, them old bones, will rise again. Lancet 350(Sept. 20):868.
Harnessing chaos for optical communication
Erratic signals transmitted from one laser directly to another via an optical fiber can be used to carry information.
Abarbanel, H.D.I., and M.B. Kennel. In press. Synchronizing high-dimensional chaotic optical ring dynamics. Physical Review Letters.
VanWiggeren, G.D., and R. Roy. Communication with chaotic lasers. Science 279(Feb. 20):1198.
Cuomo, K.M., and A.V. Oppenheim. 1993. Circuit implementation of synchronized chaos with applications to communications. Physical Review Letters 71(July 5):65.
Gauthier, D.J. 1998. Chaos has come again. Science 279(Feb. 20):1156.
Neff. J., and T.L. Carroll. 1993. Circuits that get chaos in sync. Scientific American (August):120.
Peterson, I. 1990. Chaotic systems that stay in step. Science News 137(March 24):191.
Roy, R., and K.S. Thornburg Jr. 1994. Experimental synchronization of chaotic lasers. Physical Review Letters 72(March 28):2009.
Will petunias and poppies need sunscreen?
A lab simulation of the effects of rising UV-B radiation reveals sluggishness in plant pollen.
Torabinejad, J. . . . S.D. Flint, et al. 1998. Susceptibility of pollen to UV-B radiation: An assay of 34 taxa. American Journal of Botany 3(March):360.
Demchik, S.M., and T. Day. 1996. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on pollen quantity, quality, and seed yield in Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany 83:573.
Feldheim, K., and J.K. Conner. 1996. The effects of increased UV-B radiation on growth, pollination success, and lifetime female fitness in two Brassica species. Oecologia 106:284.
Whales stranded during military test
A rare stranding of Cuviers beaked whales on the Greek coast in 1996 took place at the same time as NATO tests of a sonar system.
Frantzis, A. 1998. Does acoustic testing strand whales? Nature 392(March 5):29.
Eating seeds shifts ant sex ratios
When ants feed on the seeds of woodland plants, the number of reproductive females in the ant colony increases.
Morales, M.A., and E.R. Heithaus. 1998. Food from seed-dispersal mutualism shifts sex ratios in colonies of the ant Aphaenogaster rudis. Ecology 79(March):734.
Repulsive force in the cosmos?
The universe appears to be expanding at an ever-increasing rate.
Filippento, A. 1998. Third International Symposium on Sources and Detection of Dark Matter in the Universe. Marina del Rey. February.
Cowen, R. 1998. Cosmologists in flatland. Science News 153(Feb. 28):139.
______. 1998. The cosmoss fate: World without end. Science News 153(Jan. 3):4.
Near-Earth asteroid: A far miss
Improved calculations indicate that the near-Earth asteroid 1997 XF11 will not strike Earth when it passes closest to it 30 years from now.
Marsden, B.G. 1998. One-mile-wide asteroid to pass closer than the moon in 2028. International Astronomical Union circular(March 11).
Short AZT course can protect fetuses
A Thai study indicating that AZT effectively limits mother-to-fetus transmission of HIV led U.S. and U.N. agencies to change study protocols.
1997. Panel affirms importance of prenatal AZT use. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases. Bethesda. March.
Papillomavirus common in college women
Though human papillomavirus occurs frequently among U.S. college women and has been linked with cancers, noninvasive monitoring may be the best course of action.
Ho, G.Y.F. . . . R.D. Burk. 1998. Natural history of cervicovaginal papillomavirus infection in young women. New England Journal of Medicine 338(Feb. 12):423.
Cantor, S.B., et al. 1998. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. Obstetrics and Gynecology 91:270.
Evander, M., et al. 1995. Human papillomavirus infection is transient in young women: A population-based cohort study. Journal of Infectious Diseases 171:1026.
Seachrist, L. 1995. Amount of virus sets cancer risk. Science News 148(Sept. 23):197.
Sternberg, S. 1996. Risky sex breeds neglected epidemic. Science News 150(Nov. 30):343.
Under ultraviolet light, surfaces coated with titanium dioxide can kill bacteria and destroy their toxins.
Sunada, K. . . . A. Fujishima. 1998. Bactericidal and detoxification effects of Ti02 thin film photocatalysts. Environmental Science & Technology 32(March 1):726.
Amato, I. 1989. Light ways of making future fuel. Science News 135(Feb. 25):123.
Lipkin, R. 1995. Coating self-cleans glass and paints. Science News 148(Sept. 2):157.
Raloff, J. 1993. Cotton, fleece, and beads. Science News 143(May 22):332.
Strauss, E. 1997. Odd companions create unusual environment. Science News 152(Aug. 2):70.
Thayer, A.M. 1998. Titanium dioxide. Chemical and Engineering News 76(March 9):10.
When sewage is recycled for drinking
Federal regulations may need to be strengthened to protect drinking water from contaminants introduced during sewage treatment.
1998. The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water. National Research Council. Washington, D.C. March.
Does it matter that pharmaceuticals are turning up in water supplies?
People can excrete large portions of any medicine they take, sometimes leaving detectable drug residues in treated sewage, waterways, and drinking water.
Buser, H., M.D. Muller, and N. Theobald. 1998. Occurrence of the pharmaceutical drug clofibric acid and the herbicide mecoprop in various Swiss lakes and in the North Sea. Environmental Science and Technology 32(Jan. 1):188.
Halling-Serensen, B., et al. 1998. Occurrence, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environmenta review. Chemosphere 36(January):357.
Hartmann, A. In Press. Identification of fluoroquinolone antibiotics as the main source of umuC genotoxicity in native hospital. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:3.
Hartmann, A., et al. 1997. Determination of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin in hospital and municipal water. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. San Francisco. November.
Heberer, T. 1997. Determination of clofibric acid and N-(phenylsulfonyl)-sarcosine in sewage, river and drinking water. Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 3:1.
Heberer, T. et al. 1997. Detection of drugs and drug metabolites in ground water samples of a drinking water treatment plant. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 6:438.
Snyder, S., et al. 1997. Toxicant identification and evaluation (TIE) of endocrine disrupters in aqueous mixtures. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. San Francisco. November.
Steger-Hartmann, T., K. Kummerer, and A. Hartmann. 1997. Biological degradation of cyclophosphamide and its occurrence in sewage water. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 36:174.
Ternes, T.A. In press. Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Research.
1997. National Environmental Policy Act: Revision of policies and procedures. Federal Register 62(July 29).
Burhenne, J., et al. 1997. Chemotherapeutic agents: Primary photoproducts and half-lives. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 4:10.
______. 1997. Chemotherapeutic agents: Isolation and structural elucidation of polar photometabolites. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 4:61.
Knepper, T.P., and K. Haberer. Auftreten von phenylsulfonamiden in kläranlagen,oberflächenund trinkwässern(Occurrence of phenylsulfonamides in sewage, surfaceand tap waters). Vom Wasser 86:263. (Abstract in English).
Renner, R. 1998. Human estrogens linked to endocrine disruption. Environmental News 32(Jan. 1):8.
Sallustio, B.C., et al. Genotoxicity of acyl metabolites formed from clofibric acid and gemfibrozil: A novel role for Phase-II mediated bioactivation in the hepatocarcinogenicity of the parent aglycones? Toxicology and Applies Pharmacology 147(December):459.
Schlett, C., und B. Pfeifer. 1996. Bestimmung von steroidhormonen in trinkund oberflächenwässern. (Determination of steroidal hormones in drinking and surface water samples.) Vom Wasser 87:237. (Abstract in English).
Stan, H.J., and T. Heberer. Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Analusis 25:20.
Stumpf, M., et al. 1996. Nachweis von arneimittelruckstänlagen und flieb gewässern. (Determination of pharmaceutics in sewage plants and river water). Vom Wasser 86:291.
A Model Walker
A novel mechanical model may provide insights into how people walk.
Coleman, M.J., and A. Ruina. In press. An uncontrolled toy that can walk but cannot stand still. Physical Review Letters.
Additional information about research on passive dynamic walking at Cornell is available at http://www.msc.cornell.edu/~garcia/.
Table of Contents - 3/21/98
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