Fetal exposure to certain common environmental pollutants, such as phthalates, can feminize male animals or impair their reproductive organs by blocking the activity of male sex hormones.
Gray Jr., E.L., et al. 1999. Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p, p'-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl- and diethylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethane sulphonate) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(January-March):94.
Gray Jr., E.L., et al. 1999. Environmental antiandrogens: Low doses of the fungicide vinclozolin alter sexual differentiation of the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(January-March):48.
Gray Jr., L.E., and J. Ostby. 1999. Profiles of effects of antiandrogenic pesticides and toxic substances on sex differentiation. Meeting of the Society of Toxicology. March. New Orleans.
Gray Jr., E.L., et al. 1999. The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(January-March):37.
Monosson, E. . . . and L.E. Gray Jr. 1999. Peripubertal exposure to the antiandrogenic fungicide, vinclozolin, delays puberty, inhibits the development of androgen-dependent tissues, and alters androgen receptor function in the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(January-March):65.
Mylchreest, E. . . . P.M.D. Foster. 1999. Dose-response for altered male reproductive development and function induced by Di(n-butyl) phthalate. Meeting of the Society of Toxicology. March. New Orleans.
Mylchrest, E., and P.M.D. Foster. 1998. Antiandrogenic effects of Di(n-butyl) phthalate on male reproductive development: A nonreceptor-mediated mechanism. Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology 18(September).
Mylchreest, E., R.C. Cattley, and P.M.D. Foster. 1998. Male reproductive tract malformations in rats following gestational and lactational exposure to Di(n-butyl) phthalate: An antiandrogenic mechanism? Toxicological Sciences 43(May):47.
Ostby, J. . . . and L.E. Gray Jr. 1999. The fungicide procymidone alters sexual differentiation in the male rat by acting as an androgen-receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(January-March):80.
Sar, M., E. Mylchreest . . . and P.M.D. Foster. 1999. Di(n-butyl) phthalate induces changes in morphology and androgen receptor levels in the fetal testis. Meeting of the Society of Toxicology. March. New Orleans.
Shultz, V.D., E. Mylchreest, P.M.D. Foster, et al. 1999. Developmental analysis of gene expression in the male reproductive tract during in utero exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate. Meeting of the Society of Toxicology. March. New Orleans.
Vinyl IV bags leach toxic chemicals. Health Care Without Harm Health Alert. (Available from the Campaign for Environmentally Responsible Health Care)
Di Gangi, J. 1998. Children at risk: Toxic chemicals found in vinyl children's products. Greenpeace International Report. November. (Available from Greenpeace)
Hileman, B. 1998. Coalition asks U.S. to ban soft vinyl toys. Chemical and Engineering News 76(Nov. 30):8.
Raloff, J. 1995. Newest estrogen mimics the commonest? Science News 148(July 15):47.
Schettler, T., et al. 1996. Generations at risk: How environmental toxins may affect reproductive health in Massachusetts. Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility (GBPSR) and the Massachusetts Public Interest Research Group (MASSPIRG) Education Fund Report. September. Available at http://www.igc.apc.org/psr/index.html.
Tickner, J. 1999. A review of the availability of plastic substitutes for soft PVC in toys. Greenpeace International Report. February. (Available from Greenpeace)
Campaign for Environmentally Responsible Health Care
P.O. Box 6806
Falls Church, VA 22040
Web site: http://www.noharm.org
Paul M.D. Foster
Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology
P.O. Box 12137
6 Davis Drive
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
L. Earl Gray Jr.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NHEERL, Mail Drop 72
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
1436 U Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20009
Web site: http://www.greenpeaceusa.org
Physicians for Social Responsibility
124 Peterborough Street, Apt. 12
Boston, MA 02215
Society of Toxicology
1767 Business Center Drive
Reston, VA 22090