In 2016, Colombia saw a surge in babies with microcephaly — more than four times the number reported in 2015. The country documented 476 cases of debilitating birth defects from January 31 to November 12, researchers note December 16 in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. During the same period in 2015, there were just 110 cases. “This provides very compelling evidence that every country that experiences a large Zika outbreak is likely to see devastating outcomes on fetuses and infants,” says CDC epidemiologist Peggy Honein.
Microcephaly cases hit a high point in Colombia in July 2016, about 24 weeks after Zika virus infections peaked there. The time lag suggests that Zika poses the greatest risk to pregnant women in the first and early second trimesters.
Colombia’s dramatic uptick in microcephaly cases follows one reported in Brazil, which, in 2015, experienced a ninefold increase in cases compared with previous years. Scientists have concluded that Zika virus was a causal factor.
Some researchers wondered, though, about the extent of Zika’s role in microcephaly in Colombia. Earlier this year, the country’s tally of microcephaly cases seemed smaller than expected, given the reported rise in Zika infections. The new report suggests that, as in Brazil, Zika virus bears blame for Colombia’s microcephaly epidemic too.
E.L. Cuevas et al. Preliminary Report of Microcephaly Potentially Associated with Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy — Colombia, January–November 2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 65, December 16, 2016, p. 1409. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6549e1.
M. Rosen. This week in Zika: vaccine progress, infection insights. Science News Online. June 28, 2016.
M. Rosen. How Zika became the prime suspect in microcephaly mystery. Science News, Vol. 189, April 2, 2016, p. 26.