Carolyn is the Earth & Climate writer at Science News. Previously she worked at Science magazine for six years, both as a reporter covering paleontology and polar science and as the editor of the news in brief section. Before that she was a reporter and editor at EARTH magazine. She has bachelor’s degrees in Geology and European History and a Ph.D. in marine geochemistry from MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. She’s also a former Science News intern.

All Stories by Carolyn Gramling

  1. reconstruction of an ancient eagle shark

    An ancient shark’s weird fins helped it glide like a manta ray

    Nicknamed eagle shark, the newly discovered ancient creature achieved underwater flight 30 million years before the first rays.

  2. robot swimming in South China Sea
    Materials Science

    This soft robot withstands crushing pressures at the ocean’s greatest depths

    An autonomous robot that mimics the adaptations of deep-sea snailfish to extreme conditions was successfully tested at the bottom of the ocean.

  3. Muusoctopus johnsonianus octopus on the seafloor

    Predatory octopuses were drilling into clamshells at least 75 million years ago

    Holes found in ancient clams reveal that octopuses have been drilling into their prey for at least 25 million years longer than was previously known.

  4. red ochre handprints in a cave

    A magnetic field reversal 42,000 years ago may have contributed to mass extinctions

    The weakening of Earth's magnetic field beginning around 42,000 years ago correlates with a cascade of environmental crises, scientists say.

  5. fin whale

    Fin whale songs can reveal hidden features of the ocean floor

    Fin whale calls can penetrate into Earth’s crust, offering scientists a new way to study the properties of the ocean floor.

  6. Flood in Chamoli District, India

    Three things to know about the disastrous flood in India

    The flood, which killed at least 30 people, may have been caused by a collapsing glacier or a landslide, with climate change possibly playing a role.

  7. biomorphs

    Fossil mimics may be more common in ancient rocks than actual fossils

    Evidence of early life may be harder to preserve than pseudofossils — structures that form abiotically but resemble living remnants.

  8. satellite image of ship tracks in clouds

    Ship exhaust studies overestimate cooling from pollution-altered clouds

    Lines of clouds formed by ship exhaust offer a window into aerosol-cloud interactions but may overestimate how much pollution-altered clouds cool the climate.

  9. solar thermal power plant in Morocco

    How much will Africa capitalize on cheap renewable energy as its power grid grows?

    An analysis of the successes and failures of past electrical power projects across Africa suggests the continent isn’t likely to go green before 2030.

  10. gas flare at North Dakota oil well

    ‘The New Climate War’ exposes tactics of climate change ‘inactivists’

    In his new book, climate scientist Michael Mann draws the battle lines for a new phase of the struggle against climate change denialism.

  11. man wearing mask at Santa Monica beach

    2020 and 2016 tie for the hottest years on record

    Ocean temperature data as well as temperatures measured over land at weather stations around the globe revealed the extent of the warming.

  12. erupting volcano

    How the Earth-shaking theory of plate tectonics was born

    Plate tectonics explains many of Earth’s geologic wonders and natural hazards — and may hold clues to the evolution of life.