Food for Thought
Although wine may improve with age, the human body tends to falter during the so-called golden years. Among the most exasperating declines occur in memory and critical aspects of reasoning. However, downing plenty of caffeine-rich coffee—or tea—may offer one low-cost solution for keeping aging wits sharp, a French study finds. The rub: This strategy appears to benefit only women.
Evolutionary biologists have found that the California sea hare, a mollusk that goes by the scientific name of Aplysia californica, has a protein similar to proteins in people that respond to estrogen and other steroid hormones. The surprising finding suggests that estrogen was the first such hormone to evolve and that the estrogen-signaling system dates back more than 600 million years....
Long before sharks and salmon were even a twinkle in Mother Nature's eye, strange-looking fishes patrolled the ancient seas. They made their living in many ways, such as filtering through mud, but none bit into their food–these were the days before fish had jaws.
Innovation, however, was afoot 450 million years ago. Some of these animals made a leap...