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seed bug penis and tip

The sperm-delivery organ (left) of a Lygaeus simulans bug ends in a tough, elongated tube (right). Experimentally shortening the tube might someday explain why male and female lengths don’t seem to match.

Odaraia alata

The fossilized brain of Odaraia alata, an arthropod ancestor found in western Canada’s Burgess Shale, had a hard plate that may have had nerves connecting its eyes and brain.

seafloor map

VISITING THE RELATIVES  At a deep spot (red dot) on the seafloor between Norway and Greenland not far from the hydrothermal vents at Loki’s Castle, mud has yielded DNA samples from microbes that may be the closest kin yet known to complex life.

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