Proteins from the saliva of sand flies such as Phlebotomus papatasi (shown) and Phlebotomus duboscqi may help scientists develop a vaccine for leishmaniasis, a disfiguring and deadly parasitic infection.
BONUS SHOT The measles vaccine gives people an unexpected bonus: Preventing measles keeps the immune system healthy enough to fend off other diseases.
LONGEVITY BY THE NUMBERS How long a species lives depends upon the number of “Siglec” genes it carries. Siglec genes encode immune proteins that may protect against aging by fighting oxidants. Source: Schwarz et al./eLife 2015; Adapted by E. Otwel.