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Rare reptile holds clue to penis evolution

Like other reptiles and mammals, tuatara embryos start budding male genitalia — but then lose it

8:05pm, October 27, 2015

LOST IT  Deep in the evolution of New Zealand’s lizardlike tuatara, adult males probably lost their ancestral phallus — a clue to the ancient history of the penis.

A rare reptile is shedding light on the evolution of the penis — even though it doesn’t have one.

The tuatara, a lizardlike species in New Zealand, never grows a real phallus. Yet as an embryo, it starts forming tiny nubbins like those that turn into the great diversity of sperm-delivery organs in other mammals and reptiles, researchers at the University of Florida in Gainesville report October 28 in Biology Letters. Tuatara phallus development then stalls, but that initial burst of development supports the scenario that the phallus evolved just once in mammals and reptiles, says study coauthor Thomas Sanger.

With the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on the brink of extinction, conservation managers would not permit sacrificing any of its embryos to study phallic history. But Sanger knew of some fragile, old microscope slides of tuatara embryos in the

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