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lava from Kilauea

RED RIVER  Incandescent rivers of lava pour out of fissure 8 on Kilauea’s lower east rift zone, filling an open channel and flowing swiftly toward the ocean. Lava fountaining out of the fissure and then cooling rapidly has also created a 55-meter-tall cinder cone, visible against the smoke.

map of world’s rivers and streams

ROVING RIVERS  An updated map of the world’s rivers and streams reveals their global fingerprint. Colors denote a river’s width, from deep blue (30 meters) to yellow (thousands of meters).

rover on Mars surface

SURFACE SURVEYOR  In 1997, NASA’s Sojourner rover  explored the “Rock Garden,” an ancient floodplain strewn with large rocks that were swept into the valley during Mars’ wetter past. Scientists now say the Red Planet’s crust solidified much quicker than once thought.

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