Invading Romans, Anglo-Saxons and Normans may have shaped the history, culture and language of the British Isles, but they left surprisingly few genetic traces behind.
DNA samples from more than 2,000 people from rural parts of the United Kingdom reveal 17 subtly distinct groups that reflect the history of the islands, researchers report in the March 19 Nature.
Among the surprises: Traditionally Celtic-speaking groups in Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall on the southwest tip of England are genetically distinct from each other. Researchers had previously assumed that Celts were a uniform group that spread throughout the islands. Welsh people appear to be descendants of the first British settlers after the Ice Age, the analysis found. The Welsh remained genetically isolated from the rest of Britain, and researchers found no trace of Anglo-Saxon heritage in their DNA.
The study also reveals that after Roman rule, invading Anglo-Saxons didn’t wipe out and replace the Britons. Instead, they mixed and intermarried with them.