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Palace remains in Mexico point to ancient rise of centralized power

Ruler ruled, lived in, maybe even performed ritual sacrifices in 2,300-year-old structure

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3:10pm, March 27, 2017
aerial image of palace

ROYAL DIGS  An aerial view shows an excavated section of a ruler’s palace in southern Mexico that dates to as early as 2,300 years ago. This structure contained areas for conducting government business. The ruler’s living quarters, above and to the right of the exposed area, were filled in with dirt after being excavated.

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Remnants of a royal palace in southern Mexico, dating to between around 2,300 and 2,100 years ago, come from what must have been one of the Americas’ earliest large, centralized governments, researchers say.

Excavations completed in 2014 at El Palenque uncovered a palace with separate areas where a ruler conducted affairs of state and lived with his family, say archaeologists Elsa Redmond and Charles Spencer, both of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Only a ruler of a bureaucratic state could have directed construction of this all-purpose seat of power, the investigators conclude the week of March 27 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The royal palace, the oldest such structure in the Valley of Oaxaca, covered as many as 2,790 square meters, roughly half the floor area of the White House. A central staircase connected to an inner courtyard that probably served as a place for the ruler and his advisors to reach decisions, hold feasts and — based on human skull fragments found there — perform ritual sacrifices, the scientists suggest. A system of paved surfaces, drains and other features for collecting rainwater runs throughout the palace, a sign that the entire royal structure was built according to a design, the researchers say.

El Palenque’s palace contains no tombs. Its ancient ruler was probably buried off-site, at a ritually significant location, Redmond and Spencer say.

Citations

E.M. Redmond and C.S. Spencer. Ancient palace complex (300 – 100 BC) discovered in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Published the week of March 27, 2017. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701336114.  

Further Reading

B. Bower. Temples of boom: Ancient Hawaiians took fast road to statehood. Science News. Vol. 167, January 8, 2005, p. 20.

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