In the Dec. 9 SN: Lessons from the Pliocene, searching for new ways to fight MS, a supernova on repeat, the great gene drive debate, spider sleep secrets, an ailing boy gets new skin, kleptopredation and more.
DEEP FIXERS Scientists collected ocean water at different depths using this rosette (center), revealing that an abundant group of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria called Nitrospinae dominate carbon “fixation” in the deep ocean.
BLAST FROM THE PAST Three million years ago, Earth’s climate was so warm that the High Arctic supported forests (illustrated) in which camels and other animals roamed.
Julius T. Csotonyi
LOOKING FOR NEW LANDS A historian argues that climate, along with other factors, impeded Europeans early attempts at colonizing North America. English explorer Henry Hudson is depicted here meeting Native Americans in 1609 in what’s now New York.