A century ago, mathematician Hermann Minkowski famously merged space with time, establishing a new foundation for physics; today physicists are rethinking how the two should fit together
Einstein hated dice. Or at least he hated what dice represented: a world in which chance trumped fate. Einstein believed in a cosmic time that ticked into the future along a preordained route, each moment the inevitable product of the one preceding. Einstein’s universe had no room for luck.
Or so Einstein’s deterministic view of reality is often represented. Actually, his time didn’t even tick. It preexisted.