Earth & Environment

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air bubbles in a rock

NOT-SO-FRESH AIR  Ancient air embedded inside rock salt for 815 million years suggests that oxygen was already abundant when the first animals appeared. The microscopic air bubbles were trapped inside rectangular inclusions (one circled in red) in the rock.

dinosaur illustration

BRIDGE THE GAP  Land crossings may have allowed dinosaurs (such as Supersaurus, shown in this artist’s illustration), lizards and early mammals to migrate across the Atlantic Ocean around 150 million years ago, one researcher proposes.


ARMOR-PLATED  In a four-year experiment simulating ocean acidification conditions expected under climate change, shell-building rates of Emiliania huxleyi phytoplankton (shown) dropped, rebounded and then dropped again.

Earth & Environment

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