Carolyn is the Earth & Climate writer at Science News. Previously she worked at Science magazine for six years, both as a reporter covering paleontology and polar science and as the editor of the news in brief section. Before that she was a reporter and editor at EARTH magazine. She has bachelor’s degrees in Geology and European History and a Ph.D. in marine geochemistry from MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. She’s also a former Science News intern.

All Stories by Carolyn Gramling

  1. The Munich Specimen

    Dino-bird had wings made for flapping, not just gliding

    Archaeopteryx fossils suggest the dino-birds were capable of flapping their wings in flight.

  2. Earth

    Diamonds reveal sign of the deepest water known inside Earth

    A rare form of ice crystal in the gems could have formed only at the crushing pressures found in the mantle.

  3. fossil of extinct bird called Enantiornithes

    This baby bird fossil gives a rare look at ancient avian development

    A 127-million-year-old fossil of a baby bird suggests diversity in how a group of extinct birds grew.

  4. Earth

    By 2100, damaged corals may let waves twice as tall as today’s reach coasts

    Structurally complex coral reefs can defend coasts against waves, even as sea levels rise.

  5. Antarctic ice

    Critter-finding mission to Antarctica’s Larsen C iceberg scrapped

    Thick sea ice ended a rapid-response mission to study seafloor that lay beneath Larsen C iceberg.

  6. bryophyte

    Early land plants led to the rise of mud

    New research suggests early land plants called bryophytes, which include modern mosses, helped shape Earth’s surface by creating clay-rich river deposits.

  7. fishing map

    New mapping shows just how much fishing impacts the world’s seas

    Industrial fishing now occurs across 55 percent of the world’s ocean area while only 34 percent of Earth’s land area is used for agriculture or grazing.

  8. dino illustration

    New fossils are redefining what makes a dinosaur

    While some researchers question what characteristics define the dinosaurs, others are uprooting the dino family tree altogether.

  9. seal pup

    Strong winds send migrating seal pups on lengthier trips

    Prevailing winds can send northern fur seal pups on an epic journey.

  10. Gentoo penguin

    Look to penguins to track Antarctic changes

    Scientists say carbon and nitrogen isotopes found in penguin tissues can indicate shifts in the Antarctic environment.

  11. dwarf pines

    Ancient ozone holes may have sterilized forests 252 million years ago

    Swaths of barren forest may have led to Earth’s greatest mass extinction.

  12. algal bloom

    Humans are overloading the world’s freshwater bodies with phosphorus

    Human activities are driving phosphorus levels in the world’s lakes and other freshwater bodies to a critical point.