Carolyn is the Earth & Climate writer at Science News. Previously she worked at Science magazine for six years, both as a reporter covering paleontology and polar science and as the editor of the news in brief section. Before that she was a reporter and editor at EARTH magazine. She has bachelor’s degrees in Geology and European History and a Ph.D. in marine geochemistry from MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. She’s also a former Science News intern.

All Stories by Carolyn Gramling

  1. pterosaur illustration

    Pterosaurs may have been covered in fur and primitive feathers

    A new study provides evidence of plumelike structures in ancient flying reptiles.

  2. hurricane flooding

    Half a degree stole the climate spotlight in 2018

    Climate attribution studies and new data on global warming targets put climate change in the spotlight this year.

  3. Greenland crater illustration

    Greenland crater renewed the debate over an ancient climate mystery

    Scientists disagree on what a possible crater found under Greenland’s ice means for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis.

  4. tornado in Oklahoma

    New research may upend what we know about how tornadoes form

    New data on the birth of tornadoes suggest that the twisters don’t form from the top down.

  5. food shortages in Somalia

    The list of extreme weather caused by human-driven climate change grows

    The tally of extreme weather events linked to climate change continues to grow, with new studies outlining links to more than a dozen events in 2017.

  6. Siberian Traps

    Volcanic eruptions that depleted ocean oxygen may have set off the Great Dying

    Massive eruptions from volcanoes spewing greenhouse gases 252 million years ago may have triggered Earth’s biggest mass extinction.

  7. Hurricane Harvey flooding

    Here’s how much climate change could cost the U.S.

    A report by hundreds of scientists from 13 federal agencies starkly outlines the economic impacts of climate change on the United States.

  8. illustration of asteroid heading for Earth

    A massive crater hides beneath Greenland’s ice

    The discovery of a vast crater in Greenland suggests that a 1-kilometer-wide asteroid hit the Earth between 2.6 million and 11,700 years ago.

  9. a photo of a large gray fossilized egg along with modern day eggs of different hues

    Eggs evolved color and speckles only once — during the age of dinosaurs

    Birds’ colorful eggs were inherited from their nonavian dinosaur ancestors.

  10. early vertebrate illustration

    The first vertebrates on Earth arose in shallow coastal waters

    After appearing about 480 million years ago in coastal waters, the earliest vertebrates stayed in the shallows for another 100 million years.

  11. Hurricane Willa

    Hurricane Willa breaks an eastern and central Pacific storm season record

    The combined might of eastern and central Pacific hurricanes produced a record-breaking year of storm energy.

  12. Tyrannosaurus rex

    T. rex pulverized bones with an incredible amount of force

    Tyrannosaurus rex’s powerful bite and remarkably strong teeth helped the dinosaur crush bones.