It’s always risky to assert that a particular study has never been conducted. The research may have been done and, worse, the researcher may come across the assertion. This article claims, “Long-term studies of tough boys have yet to be conducted.” In 1987, we reported a 9-year follow-up of 25 boys (Contributions to Human Development Monograph Series, vol. 18, pp. 58-80). Boys whom peers had judged to be tough at ages 6 to 8 became socially dominant at ages 14 to 18. In another analysis (Motivation & Emotion, 1982, vol. 6, pp. 113-131), tough boys became adolescents with the erect posture of dominance. Cross-cultural and longitudinal research confirms that male dominance is stable and socially advantageous well into adulthood.

Glenn E. Weisfeld
Wayne State University
Detroit, Mich.