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Humans

Subliminal messages to fight phobias, plus more in this week’s news

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4:13pm, February 21, 2011
Thinking big
WASHINGTON — Humans may have evolved to supply the brain with the energy-storing substance creatine at the expense of other body parts. Creatine fuels metabolism by storing energy, like a battery, over the short term and releasing it quickly. Molecular evidence from frozen tissue samples suggests that, compared with chimpanzees and rhesus macaques, humans shuttle more creatine to the brain and less to skeletal muscles. Greg Wray of Duke University in Durham, N.C., reported the findings February 20 at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and they appear in the February Journal of Human Evolution. —Alexandra Witze


Neandertal roots
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