Carbon nanotubes may be the key to shrinking down transistors and squeezing more computer power into less space.
Historically, the number of transistors that can be crammed onto a computer chip has doubled every two years or so, a trend known as Moore’s law. But that rule seems to be nearing its limit: Today’s silicon transistors can’t get much smaller than they already are.
Carbon nanotubes may offer a sizable solution. In the June 30 Science, IBM researchers report a carbon-nanotube transistor with an overall width of 40 nanometers — the smallest ever. It’s about half the size of typical silicon transistors.
Researchers have created carbon-nanotube transistors with certain supersmall components before, but the whole package was still bulky, says study coauthor Qing Cao of IBM’s Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y. The new study confirms that, in terms of size, carbon-nanotube transistors can beat out silicon — and that’s no small feat.