Reproducing experiments is more complicated than it seems

illustrations of Robert Boyle's air pumps

Seventeeth-century physicist and inventor Robert Boyle made a point to communicate the details of his experiments creating a vacuum with an air pump (his first and third attempts are illustrated here) so others could reproduce his results. Statisticians have devised a new way to measure the evidence that an experimental result has really been reproduced.

Wellcome Library, London (CC BY 4.0)

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