# The Concept of the Photon—Revisited

@article{Muthukrishnan2003TheCO, title={The Concept of the Photon—Revisited}, author={Ashok Muthukrishnan and Marlan O. Scully and Muhammad Suhail Zubairy}, journal={Optics \& Photonics News}, year={2003}, volume={14}, pages={59-80} }

The photon concept is one of the most debated issues in the history of physical science. Some thirty years ago, we published an article in Physics Today entitled "The Concept of the Photon," 1 in which we described the "photon" as a classical electromagnetic field plus the fluctuations associated with the vacuum. However, subsequent developments required us to envision the photon as an intrinsically quantum mechanical entity, whose basic physics is much deeper than can be explained by the… Expand

#### 29 Citations

Quantum Mechanics of Photons

- 2012

We present a short review of the concept of photon wave function and the photon wave equation which represents the Schrödinger equation for the photon. Photon wave function puts the photon on the… Expand

The photon concept revisited: role of cooperative virtual processes in light harvesting

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- 2013

The usefulness of the photon concept has been debated since its original proposal by Einstein in 1905. The photon picture has evolved via the “fuzzy-ball” and stochastic to the entangled,… Expand

Quantum mechanics without quanta: the nature of the wave–particle duality of light

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- 2015

In this paper, I argue that light is a continuous classical electromagnetic wave, while the observed so-called quantum nature of the interaction of light with matter is connected to the discrete… Expand

The photon wave function

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- SPIE Optics + Photonics
- 2005

We review and sharpen the concept of a photon wave function based on the quantum theory of light. We argue that a point-like atom serves as the archetype for both the creation and detection of… Expand

Are there photons in fact?

- Physics, Engineering
- SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications
- 2015

There are two opposing points of view on the nature of light: the first one manifests the wave-particle duality as a fundamental property of the nature; the second one claims that photons do not… Expand

Photon-based and classical descriptions in nanophotonics: a review

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- 2014

Abstract. The centrality of the photon concept in modern physics is strongly evident in wide spheres of photonics and nanophotonics. Despite the resilience and persistence of earlier classical… Expand

A rational explanation of wave-particle duality of light

- Physics, Engineering
- Optics & Photonics - Optical Engineering + Applications
- 2013

The wave-particle duality is a fundamental property of the nature. At the same time, it is one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. This gave rise to a whole direction in quantum physics -… Expand

Classical and quantum field aspects of light

- 2008

This lecture (the first of three) discusses foundational problems on the nature of light revealed by attempts to define a probability concept for photons, quantum models for photons on demand (and… Expand

Space-time description of transverse photons: near-field aspects

- Physics
- 2012

A mean position state based on the gauge invariant transverse vector potential is used to convert single-photon states in Hilbert space to photon wave packets in direct space. The resulting photon… Expand

Different Perspective on Blue Sky Theory: Theory of Single-Photon Scattering on Bound and Free Electrons

- Physics
- 2021

We present a theory of light scattering consistent with modern physics. We proposed a spatial‐ temporal model of a photon based on classical model of an atomic oscillator. Using this… Expand

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